ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY AND NUTRIENT POTENCY OF LOCAL TRADITIONAL VEGETABLES IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

Irawan D, Wijaya CH, Limin SH, Hashidoko Y, Osaki M, Kulu IP
(TROPICS 2006/Vol 15/No 4)

Abstract

The Dayak people in Central Kalimantan, traditionally consumed local vegetable, either collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Unfortunately, many of the traditional vegetables are approaching extinction, even in their local market. This research is intended to conserve the traditional vegetable by collecting nutritional data and cultural information about the vegetable. Nineteen traditional Dayak vegetables were observed in local markets and in wild areas. Taxonomic identification revealed that the vegetables were Passiflora foetida L. (kemot), Diplazium esculentum (Retz). SW. (bajey fern), Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurtz (kedondong leaves), Neptunia oleracea Lour (malu-malu leaves), Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava leaves). Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (talak leaves), Etlingera elatiar (Jack) R.M. Smith (potok shoots, red and green cultivar), Calamus sp. (rotan shoots), Nauclea sp. (Taya leaves), Momordica charantia L. (paria leaves), Gymnopetalum cochinense Kurz (kanjat), Solanum torvum Swartz. (segau fruit), Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (sulur keladi shoots), Stenochlaena palutris (Burm.)Bedd. (kalakai leaves; red and white cultivar), lotus shoots (pucuk teratai), and Cnesmone javanica Blume (lampinak leaves).

Nutrient analysis revealed that red kalakai (wild fern) has the potential nutrient value. It has a high amount of Fe (41.53 ppm), Cu (4.52 ppm), vitamin C (15.41 mg/100g), protein (2.36%), β-carotene (66.99 ppm), and folic acid (11.30 ppm). Other iron-rich vegetables were sulur keladi (49.25 ppm) and bajey (44.6 ppm). While other vitamin C-rich vegetables were paria leaves (18.34 mg/100 g wb), and bajaj fern (22.05 mg/100g w.b). Sulur keladi and bajey were also rich in folic acid. They had 16 and 6.3 ppm of folic acid respectively. The β-carotene content in bajey was 74.04 ppm while taya was 77.41 ppm.

Physico-Chemical Properties, Sensory Characteristics and Glycemic Index of Tidal Peat-Swamp Rice Grown in South Kalimantan

 

Wijaya CH, Bernard, Purnomo E, Hashidoko Y

 (ASEAN Food Journal 2007, 14 (1): 37-43)

Abstract

“Panjang” rice is an ethnic rice strain found in a tidal peat swamp Aluh-Aluh, South Kalimantan. A series of analyses on its sensory and physico-chemical properties included proximates, mineral content, amylose content, starch gelatinization, grain size and color were carried out to compare its quality to that of the commercial wet-land rice. Its glycemic index was also measured to explore its low glycemic potency. “Panjang” rice was classified as a medium sized grain (5.50 mm length) with high amylose content of 31.1% (db), gelatinized at 77.3oC with gelatinization peak at 97.5oC and maximum viscosity at 637.5 BU. There were significant differences between “Panjang” rice and IR 42 in ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, and mineral (Na, S and P) contents, amylose content as well as grain brightness. No significant (p<0.05) difference was observed in sensory properties between ”Panjang” and”“IR 42” cooked rice, except that no bitter taste was sensed in “Panjang” rice . Based on its glycemic index, which was as low as 46.8, “panjang” rice can be classified as low glycemic index rice.

ROLE OF BACTERIA IN TEMPE BITTER TASTE FORMATION: MICROBIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS BASED ON 16S rRNA GENE

Tati Barus, Antonius Suwanto, Aris Tri Wahyudi, Hanny Wijaya

(Microbiology Indonesia/Vol 2/No 1/2008)

Abstract

 

Tempe is traditional Indonesian food. It has a variety of tastes, sometimes with a hint of bitterness, which may differ in intensity. The cause of bitterness in tempe has never been reported previously. In this study, the aim is to identify whether bacteria play a role in the formation of bitter tastes in tempe. Sensory tests were carried out in order to determine the scores of bitter-taste-intensity in tempe. The sensory test on EMP, WJB, CLR, DRG, and MLB tempe shows that EMP tempe has the highest score (2.3) and WJB has the lowest (1.3). It is revealed that the processing method has no impact on the formation of the bitter taste in tempe. Plating analysis, showed that EMP soaking water contained a higher number of Enterobacteria group bacteria, approximately 103-104 CFU ml-1 and spore-forming bacteria groups, 102 CFU ml-1, compared to WJB. Similarly, other bacteria groups in fresh EMP tempe was 102 CFU g-1 higher than those in fresh WJB tempe. Based on sequencing the16S rRNA gene, the dominant bacteria on PCA media in EMP tempe are Acetobacter indonesiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Flavobacterium sp. On the other hand those in WJB tempe were Klebsiella sp., Brevundimonas sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, and Acinetobacter sp. Bacillus, a group of proteolytic bacteria was found 105 CFU m-1 higher in the soaking water of EMP compared to WJB. Nevertheless, the types and numbers of fungi were not significantly different between tempe types. Accordingly, it is concluded that the difference in the number and the types of bacteria involved in the tempe production process leads to the difference in the bitter taste intensity in both EMP and WJB tempe.

FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF VEGETABLES FROM INDONESIA

Nuri Andarwulan, Ratna Batari, Diny Agustini Sandrasari, Bradley Bolling, Hanny Wijaya

(Food Chemistry 121)

Abstract

Extracts from 11 vegetables of Indonesian origin were screened for flavonoid content, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. The flavonols myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol and flavones luteolin and apigenin were quantified by HPLC. Flavonoid content in mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) was apparently initially reported for Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. (52.19), Polyscias pinnata (52.19), Pluchea indica Less. (6.39), Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.f.) Merr (5.43), Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. (3.93), Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Bl. (2.27), and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm (1.18). The flavonoid content of the vegetables studied were mainly quercetin and kaempferol and ranged from 0.3 to 143 mg/100 g fw, with the highest level found in Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. C. caudatus H.B.K. had the greatest total phenols among the vegetables analysed, with 1.52 mg GAE/100 g fw. P. indica Less. and C. caudatus H.B.K. had the highest antioxidant activity as measured by ferric cyanide reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,20-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging, and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, S. androgynus (L) Merr, C. caudatus H.B.K., and P. pinnata were identified as potentially rich sources of dietary flavonoids and antioxidants.

 

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF BAKASANG (A TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN FERMENTED FISH PRODUCT) AND ITS PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Silvana D. Harikedua, C. Hanny Wijaya and Dede R. Adawiyah
(Fisheries Science/Volume 78/Number 1/2012)
 

Abstract

Quantitative descriptive analysis and physicochemical analysis were carried out to assess the relationship of the sensory attributes of bakasang (a traditional Indonesian fermented fish product) to its physicochemical properties. Pearson correlation analysis and partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) were used to analyze the data. Two PLS-R models were established for relating six physicochemical properties to 12 sensory attributes. The first PLS-R model indicated that salty, umami, bitter, and bitter aftertaste showed an excellent correlation to moisture content, water activity (a w), salt content, and free amino nitrogen. The second model indicated that sulphury meaty, overripe cheese, sweaty, and ammonia were positively correlated with the moisture content, a w, salt content, and total volatile bases. A microbiological quality test of this product indicated that it meets the standards of the Indonesian National Standard Quality of fish sauce.