THERMOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN JAPANESE DOMESTIC Allium, Allium victorialis L.

Nishimura H, Takahashi T, Wijaya CH, Satoh A, Ariga T

(Biofactors 13/2000)

Abstract

 

Sulfur compounds contributed to the health promotion in Allium species are produced via enzymic and thermal reactions. Potent antithrombotic agents which have been identified as allyl trisulfides, dithiins, and ajoene in garlic (A. sativum) and caucas (A. victorialis) are thermochemically transformed from allicin (allyl 2-propenethiosulfinate). The leaves and stems of Japanese domestic Allium plant, A. victorialis L. which is widely distributed in the northern part of Japan, under the name “Gyoja-ninniku” is a nutritious vegetable. The significant flavor compounds of caucas are methyl allyl disulfide (Chinese chive odor), diallyl disulfide (garlic-like odor), and dimethyl disulfide and methyl allyl trisulfide (pickles-like odor) among more than 85 peaks on the gas chromatogram. 2-Vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin and 3,4-dihydro-3-vinyl-1,2-dithiin as platelet aggregation inhibitors were found eliminated in dichloromethane extract of caucas. The significant health promoting factors, allyl trisulfides and dithiins were relatively increased when caucas was cooked on a frying pan.

ANTI-PLATELET AGGREGATION ACTIVITIES OF SHALLOT AND GARLIC DRIED POWDERS MADE OF LOCAL (INDONESIAN)

Wijaya CH, Muchtadi D, Lale HJ, Koswara S, Zakaria F

(Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress 2000, Vol. 7 No 1)

Abstract

“Jawi” variety of garlic from central Java and local variety of shallot from Nusa Tenggara were freeze-dried or oven-dried at different temperatures and time periods. Dried products were analyzed for their antiplatelet aggregation activities, water contents, volatile reducing substances contents, gas chromatographic (GC) profiles and yields. Drying treatments reduced the antiplatelet aggregation activities. Methanol extracts of freeze-dried garlic and shallot had antiplatelet aggregation activity (D50) of 0.08 dan 0.30 mg/ml, respectively. The oven dried products obtained under optimal conditions (70oC, 10 hrs) had antiplatelet aggregation activities of 0.31 and 0.70 mg/mg, respectively. Elevated temperatures and extended drying periods decreased the activities of products. Freeze dried products had a lighter color than the oven dried ones and had a similar aroma and GC profiles to the fresh ones. The contents of volatile reducing substances (VRS) in the products positively correlated with their antiplatelet aggregation activities.

IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS AND KEY AROMA COMPOUNDS OF ANDALIMAN FRUIT (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium)

Wijaya CH, Triyanti I, Apriyantono A

(J. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2002, 11(6):680-683)

Abstract

Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodiumDC) is a wild herb, with strong exotic and citrus-like flavor, very populer in Nothern Sumatera, Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify the volatile compounds and to characterize the key aroma compounds in andaliman fruit. The volatile compounds were extracted by four different methods. Extract with the most resemble aroma was obtained from fresh andaliman fruit by maceration method with diethyl ether as solvent. The identification and aroma characterization were conducted by GC-MS, GC-O, and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA, respectively. Among the 24 identified components, monoterpenes were the main constituents; including oxygenated monoterpene (46.54%) and hydrocarbon monoterpene (19.75%). The major volatile compounds (relative peak area > 10%) were geranly acetate (32.04%) and limonene (15.8%). However, AEDA analysis indicated that citronellal and limonene were the most impacting compounds on the aroma of andaliman with flavor dilution factor of 128 and 32, respectively. β-myrcene, (z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-citronellol, neral, geraniol, geranial, geranyl acetate, unknown compound, and a sesquiterpene were also contributing to andaliman’s fresh citrus and warm sweet-peppery aroma.

THE POTENCY OF KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea) AS FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS

Daisy Irawan, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Hanny Wijaya

(Indoneisan Food and Nutrition Progress 2003/Vol 10/ No 1)

Abstract

Indonesia has many auxiliary plants that may have nutritional and or environmental benefits, so that it may increase the yield of the main crops. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea), one of the auxiliary plants, was traditionally consumed in many parts of the world for its delicacy and medicinal benefits. Our research indicated that krokot has high potency to improve the health status of the community. It has 5.4 mg/100 g of b-carotene, 22.2 mg/IOO g ofvitamin C, and significant amount of folic acid (0.2 mg/100 g). Krokot was traditionally used to treat scurvy, and various of infectious and skin diseases. Literature review revealed that krokot has essential fatty acid, it also has antimutagenic, and antimicrobial activity. Unfortunately, krokot is approaching extinction both physically and ethnobotanically because they are considered as useless plants or even weed. Our survey on 103 agricultural university students revealed that only 24% ofthe respondents knew krokot. Krokot is especially difficult to find in intensively cultivated area. Along with other indigenous vegetables, Portulaca oleracea is almost never served again in Indonesian cllisine. Utilization krokot as functional food ingredients might helps to conserve the plant as well as encouraging sustainable agriculture.

IDENTIFICATION OF POTENT ODORANTS IN DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF SNAKE FRUIT [SALACCA ZALACCA (GAERT.) VOSS] USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY−OLFACTOMETRY

Wijaya CH, Ulrich D, Lestari R, Schippel K, Ebert G

(J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53 (5):1637–1641)

 

Abstract

Three cultivars of snake fruits, Pondoh Hitam, Pondoh Super, and Gading, were freshly extracted using liquid−liquid extraction. The aroma compounds of the three samples were analyzed by GC-MS and GC−olfactometry using the nasal impact frequency (NIF) method. A total of 24 odor-active compounds were associated with the aroma of snake fruit. Methyl 3-methylpentanoate was regarded as the character impact odorant of typical snake fruit aroma. 2-Methylbutanoic acid, 3-methylpentanoic acid, and an unknown odorant with very high intensity were found to be responsible for the snake fruit’s sweaty odor. Other odorants including methyl 3-methyl-2-butenoate (overripe fruity, ethereal), methyl 3-methyl-2-pentenoate (ethereal, strong green, woody), and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2]-furanone (caramel, sweet, cotton candy-like) contribute to the overall aroma of snake fruit. Methyl dihydrojasmonate and isoeugenol, which also have odor impact, were identified for the first time as snake fruit volatiles. The main differences between the aroma of Pondoh and Gading cultivars could be attributed to the olfactory attributes (metallic, chemical, rubbery, strong green, and woody), which were perceived by most of the panelists in the Pondoh samples but were not detected in the Gading samples. This work is a prerequisite for effective selection of salak genotypes with optimal aroma profiles for high consumer acceptance.